The influence of the situational environment
Path guide, fire chief, sailboat skipper, housewife, group leader, club president – everyone leads differently. Leadership is decisively shaped by the situational environment in which leadership takes place.
Therefore, employee management in everyday business is significantly influenced by elements of the company management system.
The basic functions of leadership
The planning and decision-making process
What do we want to achieve?
The objective consists of
The goal finding and
The specification of the nominal values.
How do we want to achieve it?
The planning is:
The mental preparation of purposeful future actions (what should, when, where, how to achieve the goal)
Contains the examination of different ways (alternatives) that lead to the achievement of goals.
The planning leads – based on the objective – to the decision on the best alternative.
The objective setting, planning and decision are intertwined with each other: the determination of objectives and the specification of target values, as well as planning, repeatedly require decisions. H. the choice between several possible alternatives.
The realization process
When organizing measures to achieve the goals, the instrumentarium is applied to the structural and procedural organization (see Organizational Theory).
With the ongoing influence
• induce employees to work
• Employee instructed
• Introduced new employees in their area of responsibility.
The control process
Control means: comparison of actual and target.
■ Execution control assesses the type of execution
■ The result check is used to record the degree of target achievement.
The permanent communication process
Communication means giving and taking note. Constant communication is the prerequisite for planning,
realization and control.
Standard leadership concepts (Management by …)
Management by Objectives: The goal is the goal
Management by objectives or management through goal-setting is a method of goal-oriented management. It strives for an efficient achievement of goals and can be understood as a countermovement against bureaucracy and pure process orientation. MbO is future-oriented and
results-oriented. The decisive factor is not “what” someone does, but how efficiently someone works and, above all, what he does something for: success is not expressed in the amount of work done, but in the achievement of goals.
How do you go about guiding through goal-setting? Subgoals are derived from the overall goal of an organization. As all goals change constantly, MbO is a constant process. The target formulation is from top to bottom and vice versa countercurrent. The goal formulation is made jointly between executives and their direct employees – who can be executives themselves or executives.
Therefore, the term target agreement comes from the target. It is assumed that jointly formulated goals lead to greater goal identification of the employee and thus a greater incentive effect arises to cooperate in achieving the goals. Also, the goals are more realistic.
■ That’s why employees propose the goals they want to achieve themselves.
■ Not more than three to seven goals are envisaged to avoid overwork.
■ Targets are specified by performance standards that indicate when the goals have been met.
■ Commonly defined control data and procedures are used to control the achievement of goals.
■ Measures to achieve the goals are determined by the employees, depending on their degree of maturity. During the implementation, they largely control themselves.